The regional expansion of the LRA and the resulting humanitarian crisis brought international attention to the conflict. The international community put pressure on the Sudanese government to allow UPDF counterinsurgency operations on Sudanese soil. In 2002, the Sudanese government allowed the UPDF entry into southern Sudan to confront the LRA in “Operation Iron Fist.” The operation was widely considered unsuccessful, resulting in massive retaliation by the LRA against civilians in northern Uganda and southern Sudan. The second “Iron Fist” in 2004 is thought to have been more effective, resulting in the release of a number of abductees. 


2002 to 2004
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US Army Africa/Flickr