Conflict

Not On Our Watch, The Enough Project, Google, DigitalGlobe, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, and LLC Trellon. 11/2011. Launch Point: Corroboration of Reported SAF Air Attacks in South Sudan.Abstract

The Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP) has identified through Harvard Humanitarian Initiative's analysis of DigitalGlobe satellite imagery the presence of Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) aircraft at El Obeid airbase, North Kordofan, including two Antonov AN-26 transport planes. These planes are consistent with aircraft which allegedly bombed two refugee camps on 8 and 10 November 2011 in South Sudan, according to eyewitnesses. The other aircraft present at the base as of 14 November 2011 are consistent with the following: Four Mi-24 Hinds, one Mi-17 Hip, one Yak-40, two MiG-29s and one Sukhoi Su-25.

Program Humanitarian Policy Conflict on and Research. 8/2010. The Implications of Bassiouni v. Prime Minister for Humanitarian Professionals in Gaza.Abstract
This brief will explore the legal implications of Bassiouni v. Prime Minister. Arguments derived from occupation law are not within the scope of this brief because the brief assumes for the sake of argument that the decision was decidedly correctly in that regard. For more on the debate as to whether Gaza is occupied, please see HPCR’s September 2008 policy brief, “Occupation, armed conflict, and the legal aspects of the relationship between Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip: A resource for practitioners.” Similarly, the law pertaining to Israel’s actions taken during Operation Cast Lead will not be analyzed in this paper. This brief is designed to answer questions about the legal framework the Government of Israel(GoI) applies when assessing its humanitarian obligations to the Gaza Strip, and Operation Cast Lead has not generally altered that framework. 
Jocelyn Kelly, Michael VanRooyen, Beth Maclin, Justin Kabanga, and Colleen Mullen. 4/2011. Hope for the Future Again: Tracing the effects of sexual violence and conflict on families and communities in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo .Abstract

This report outlines how violence in general, and sexual violence in particular, has changed the family foundations, economies and community structures of those touched by it in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Analyzing data from focus group discussions with a range of community members in the area, it suggests recommendations for serving the holistic needs of regions affected by sexual violence.

Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, UNITAR/UNOSAT, and DigitalGlobe. 3/2011. Frontline Abyei: Evidence of Military Escalation in Abyei Region.Abstract
Following the recent razing of three villages, there has been increased military activity in and around the contested Abyei region of Sudan during the past week. Actors aligned with both the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) appear to have improved their defensive positions and mobilized additional offensive capacity, including, in one case, vehicles consistent with the transport of heavy armor. Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP) has determined that in some parts of the Abyei region, elements believed to be aligned with the SAF and SPLA now lie within an approximately 20 to 40 kilometer range of each other. SSP also concludes that the SAF and SPLA appear to now have more units arrayed within 100 kilometers of each other in and around Abyei than at any time in the past two months of SSP's monitoring of the region.
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative’s Human Rights Documentation Team, Carr Center Human Rights for Policy, DigitalGlobe, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, and UNITAR/UNOSAT. 3/2011. Flashpoint: Abyei.Abstract

The human security situation in the Abyei region of Sudan has rapidly deteriorated in the past week due to renewed violence. Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP) has confirmed through the analysis of DigitalGlobe satellite imagery that buildings consistent with civilian infrastructure appear to have been intentionally burned Maker Abior and Todach villages. Some 100 people in the Abyei region have reportedly died in the clashes to date. According to the humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), tens of thousands of civilians have either been displaced by fighting or fled due to fear of further attacks.

Alex de Waal, Chad Hazlett, Christian Davenport, and Joshua Kennedy. 3/2010. Evidence-Based Peacekeeping: Exploring the Epidemiology of Lethal Violence in Darfur.Abstract

In this working paper, the authors seek to assess the "nature and scale of violence in Darfur in a way that is both directly useful in the design of peace support missions and policies, while also more broadly demonstrating the importance of rigorous data collection before and throughout these missions in order to arrive at evidence-based conclusions about the nature of violence and effectiveness of applied responses." The authors explore the challenges of constructing an evidence base for peace support operations and the limits to inferences that can be made about civilian protection in Darfur using existing data sources.

Naz K. Modirzadeh. 1/2010. “The Dark Sides of Convergence: A Pro-Civilian Critique of the Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Law in Armed Conflict.” International Law Studies. Read PublicationAbstract

The idea of co-application of international humanitarian law and human rights law has drawn a tremendous amount of academic attention and a huge amount of innovation in international and domestic jurisprudence. Yet in the current headlong approach into convergence, rights and rights institutions may carry risks to the very goals many humanitarian-minded international lawyers seek to achieve. This article takes a bird’s-eye view of the debate and questions whether it is a good thing to insist on the extraterritorial applicability of human rights to armed conflict situations. In doing so, the article argues that parallel application is equally as bad for the Iraqi civilian as it is for the American soldier. As we pull back the layers of legalistic argumentation, the real role of rights discourse and the real function of human rights law on the battlefield seem much less thought-out than leading scholars suggest, and the implications for this new approach to international law seem much more problematic than the current debate on the issue presents.

Not On Our Watch, The Enough Project, Google, DigitalGlobe, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, and LLC Trellon. 7/2011. Crime Scene: Evidence of Mass Graves in Kadugli, Sudan.Abstract

SSP has found evidence consistent with allegations that the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and Government of Sudan-aligned (GoS) militias have apparently engaged in a campaign of systematic mass killing of civilians in Kadugli, South Kordofan. Under the Rome Statute and other international humanitarian law, the systematic killing of civilians in peace or war by their own government can constitute crimes against humanity.

Not On Our Watch, The Enough Project, Google, DigitalGlobe, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, and LLC Trellon. 8/2011. Cover-Up: New Evidence of Three Mass Graves in South Kordofan.Abstract

SSP has identified three new apparent mass grave sites in and around Kadugli in South Kordofan, Sudan based on an analysis of DigitalGlobe satellite imagery and multiple eyewitness accounts. The three alleged mass grave sites identified in this report are separate from and in addition to the three apparent mass graves south of the Tilo School in Kadugli shown in SSP’s 14 July 2011 report.

Not On Our Watch, The Enough Project, Google, DigitalGlobe, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, and LLC Trellon. 7/2011. Convoy: Evidence of Heavy Military Activity in Kadugli, South Kordofan.Abstract

Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP) has identified through analysis of DigitalGlobe satellite imagery captured on 4 July 2011 an apparent Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) convoy travelling through Kadugli town consistent with an at least regiment-sized unit, which is equal to approximately 1000 troops. The convoy is at least 2km in length, and could be potentially longer. There are at least 80 vehicles visible in the apparent convoy, including 49 light vehicles, cargo trucks, a vehicle consistent with a fuel or water tanker, heavy transports and towed artillery. The convoy is of significant size and appears to be heading to the north, though its origin, destination and total length remains unknown.

Not On Our Watch, The Enough Project, Google, DigitalGlobe, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, and LLC Trellon. 10/2011. In Close Proximity: Alleged Abduction, Detention and Extra-Judicial Killings by Abu Tira.Abstract

The Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP) has corroborated multiple eyewitness accounts and United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) reports alleging that the Government of Sudan’s (GoS) Central Reserve Police (CRP) unit engaged in the unlawful abduction, detention, and extrajudicial killing of civilians in Kadugli, South Kordofan, Sudan.

Not On Our Watch, The Enough Project, Google, DigitalGlobe, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, and LLC Trellon. 5/2011. Burned to the Ground: Evidence of Potential War Crimes and the Intentional Destruction of Abyei Town by the Government of Sudan.Abstract

Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP) has confirmed through the analysis of DigitalGlobe satellite imagery collected on 27 May the intentional destruction of approximately one-third of all civilian structures in Abyei town by the Government of Sudan and northern-aligned militia forces. SSP has documented multiple violations of international humanitarian law in Abyei town. These abuses can constitute war crimes, including violations of the Geneva Conventions, and in some cases they may represent crimes against humanity.

Phuong Pham and Patrick Vinck. 8/2010. Building Peace, Seeking Justice: A Population-Based Survey on Attitudes About Accountability and Social Reconstruction in the Central African Republic.Abstract

Decades of Political Instability, state fragility, mismanagement, and a series of armed conflicts have led the Central African Republic (CAR) to a state of widespread violence and poverty. This study provides a better understanding of the scope and magnitude of violence in CAR and its consequences, as well as a snapshot of what the citizens of CAR believe is the best way to restore peace. It also examines the issue of justice and accountability for the serious crimes that were committed. This report provides a detailed analysis of results on a wide range of topics related to the population’s priorities and needs, exposure to violence, security, community cohesion and engagement, access to information, conflict resolution, reintegration of former combatants, transitional justice, and reparations for victims.

Not On Our Watch, The Enough Project, Google, DigitalGlobe, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, and LLC Trellon. 6/2011. Bombardment: Evidence of Aerial and Artillery Attacks in the Nuba Mountains.Abstract

Satellite Sentinel Project's (SSP) analysis of DigitalGlobe satellite imagery has found evidence supporting multiple reports that Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) are conducting aerial and artillery bombardment in the Nuba Mountains region of South Kordofan, Sudan. Fixed wing aircraft consistent with an Antonov-24/26, Yak-40, and two SU-25K Frogfoot ground attack aircraft can be seen at El Obeid airbase as of 28 June. Five helicopters, including four consistent with Hind helicopter gunships, are visible as well.

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