Signal Program

Founded: 2010
Faculty Leads: P. Gregg Greenough, MD, MPH, MS, and Erica Nelson, MD, PhM, MAS
Status: Active Program
Research Theme: Technology and Innovation


The Signal Program worked to advance the safe, ethical, and effective use of information technologies by communities of practice during humanitarian and human rights emergencies between 2010 and 2020. The team articulated methodologies and trainings for a rising generation of humanitarians, deepened the shared understanding of technology-enabled atrocity warning and response through remote sensing technologies, and authored critical theories that helped shape humanitarian ethics and responsibility in the sector. The reports and publications produced by the Signal Program are hosted on this website. The Signal Code and ongoing efforts to delve into ethics and humanitarian data are hosted at We hope these ethical foundations continue to evolve through collaborative community engagement. For the time to come, the Humanitarian Geoanalytics Research and Education Program will continue to build upon Signal’s work to further the professionalization of the sector through education and development of methodological advancements.